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Second edition (March 2024): Disinformation narratives during the 2023 elections in Europe

This expanded and revised report analyzes over 1.000 fact-checking articles published in the context of thirteen elections in twelve different European countries. The analysis reveals widespread disinformation during the election campaigns in all the considered countries, particularly about the electoral process, with false narratives often aimed at delegitimizing elections through unfounded claims of voter fraud, foreign influences and unfair practices.

Each country also shows unique disinformation trends, influenced by national contexts and current global events. Key themes include the war in Ukraine, the economy, climate change, and social issues (for example, gender themes, religion and immigration). The pervasive nature of these narratives underscores their probable significant impact on democratic debates in Europe and highlights the critical need for robust fact-checking and awareness-raising initiatives to preserve electoral integrity and democratic values.

This report includes elections held in 2023. This is the revised and expanded version of a report originally published in December 2023.